I am the 2017 Christopher Welch Scholar in Biological Sciences. My research concerns sensing, guidance and control in bird flight. In question form this means: how does a bird 'know' its state of motion, and how does it use this to actuate control surfaces based on underlying guidance laws. I use behavioural experiments to investigate these questions by making inferences from precisely recorded kinematics information in response to modulated sensory input. In particular I am interested in the reference frames and coordinates systems in which sensory information is processed, these structures being the abstract starting block from which perception is constructed.