Andy Gardner

Royal Society University Research Fellow


Research Interests

I work on Darwinian adaptation. Natural selection explains the appearance of design in the living world, but at what level is this design expected to manifest gene, individual, society and what is its function? Social evolution provides a window on this problem, by pitting the interests of genes, individuals and societies against each other. I develop general theory on the topics of inclusive fitness and multilevel selection, and also tailor general theory to the biology of particular species to facilitate empirical testing. I work on a wide range of biological systems, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, crustaceans, insects, fish and humans.

Additional Information

I have received the John Maynard Smith Prize from the European Society of Evolutionary Biology, the Young Investigator’s Award from the American Society of Naturalists, the Outstanding Young Investigator Award from the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, and the Thomas Henry Huxley Award from the Zoological Society of London.






Selected Publications

  • Gardner A & Grafen A (2009) Capturing the superorganism: a formal theory of group adaptation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22, 659-671.
  • Reece SE, Drew DR & Gardner A (2008) Sex ratio adjustment and kin discrimination in malaria parasites. Nature 453, 609-614.
  • Brockhurst MA, Buckling A & Gardner A (2007) Cooperation peaks at intermediate disturbance. Current Biology 17, 761-765.
  • Gardner A, Hardy ICW, Taylor PD & West SA (2007) Spiteful soldiers and sex ratio conflict in polyembryonic parasitoid wasps. American Naturalist 169, 519-533.
  • Gardner A, West SA & Barton NH (2007) The relation between multilocus population genetics and social evolution theory. American Naturalist 169, 207-226.