Dr Tom Hart

Junior Research Fellow
(Lady Margaret Hall)

E-mail: tom.hart(at)zoo.ox.ac.uk
Tel: 01865 281 329 (F22)

Dr Tom Hart

Research Interests

My research centres around how to monitor penguins and other marine predators in difficult environments such as Antarctica. Many of the most important environments on the planet are too data deficient to understand global change and to permit effective management. I spend a lot of time developing tools and techniques to scale up monitoring and data gathering from these environments. One of the most important is SnowBank - a repository and swap shop for polar samples, which aims to reduce the cost of polar research. I go to lots of remote places around the Southern Ocean - if you need samples that I can collect, please get in touch.

Population Genetics of penguins
I am carrying out population genetic and phylogeographic studies of penguins around Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic, using microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA. The aim of this project is to see how different species of penguin populations are structured around the Southern Ocean and how these populations have changed in the past in response to changing ice conditions. The aim is to define biologically meaningful management units for policy makers and to help identify where best to place protected areas. There are many collaborators for this work, but primarily Mike Polito at Wood's Hole Oceanographic Institute and Steve Emslie at UNCW.


Cameras, counts and citizen science.
Monitoring animals in such an extreme climate is challenging.  Many species spend much of their time at sea, and the environment they live in is both hostile and remote, making the visits required to monitor them, demanding and costly. For these reasons, the monitoring efforts for many penguin colonies in Antarctica and the Sub-Antarctic islands have to date, been limited.  However, by adapting existing camera technology and using time-lapse photography, we are trialling the development of a new monitoring array for the southern polar region.  By monitoring remotely, we hope to be able to ask new questions about the response of Antarctic penguins to their changing world. One such site is at Port Lockroy run by the Antarctic Heritage Trust, where we have set up a camera next to a monitored colony.


By collaborating with tourist operators we are trying to reach many more potential monitoring sites over the Antarctic Peninsula and surrounding islands.  It is possible to expand the current limited monitoring network to include a far greater coverage of species and network sites, in a cost effective manner. I work closely with Oceanites' Antarctic Site Inventory and Heather Lynch at Stony Brook University.


Video 1 - Penguin Cam Timelapse

Video 2 - Placing Camera Traps

Select Publications

  • Hart, T., Lynch, H. J., Naveen, R. (2015) Probe effects of krill fishing and climate. Nature 523: 410 doi:10.1038/523410c
  • Bagniewska, J. M., Harrington, L. A., Hart, T., Harrington, A. L., Fasola, L. Macdonald, D. W. (2015) Persistence in diving American mink, Animal Biotelemetry, doi: 10.1186/s40317-015-0057-4
  • Freer, J. J., Mable, B. K., Clucas, G. V., Rogers, A. D., Polito, M. J., Dunn, M., Naveen, R., Levy, H. J. Hart, T. (2015) Limited genetic differentiation among chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) colonies in the Scotia Arc and Western Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology, doi: 10.1007/s00300-015-1711-2
  • Younger, J. L. , Clucas, G. V., Kooyman, G., Wienecke, B., Rogers, A. D., Trathan, P. N., Miller, K. J., Hart, T (2015) Too much of a good thing; sea ice extent may have forced emperor penguins into refugia during the last glacial maximum. Global Change Biology, doi: 0.1111/gcb.12882.
  • du Preez, B., Hart, T., Loveridge, A. Macdonald, D. W. (2015) The impact of risk on animal behaviour and habitat-transition probabilities. Animal Behaviour 100: 22-37
  • Clucas GV, Dunn MJ, Dyke G, Emslie SD, Levy H, Naveen R, Polito MJ, Pybus OG , Rogers AD Hart T (2014) A reversal of fortunes: climate change ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ in Antarctic Peninsula penguins. Scientific Reports. 4: Article No. 5024. DOI: 10.1038/srep05024.
  • Turvey, S. T., Fernández-Secades, C., Nuñez-Miño, J. M., Hart, T., Matinez, P., Brocca, J. L. & Young, R. P.Is local ecological knowledge a useful conservation tool for small mammals in a Caribbean multicultural landscape? (2014) 169: 189–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.11.018
  • Jessopp, M., Cronin, M. & Hart, T. (2013) Habitat-Mediated Dive Behavior in Free-Ranging Grey Seals PlosOne doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063720
  • Bagniewska, J. M., Hart, T., Harrington, L. A. (2013) Hidden Markov analysis describes dive patterns in semiaquatic animals Behavioral Ecology 24: 659-667 doi:10.1093/beheco/ars217
  • Polito, M. J., Clucas, G. V., Hart. T. & Trivelpiece, W. Z. (2012) A simplified method of determining the sex of Pygoscelis penguins using bill measurements. Marine Ornithology 40: 89–94
  • Turvey, S. T., Barrett, L. A., Hart, T., Collen, B., Yujiang, H., Lei, Z. & Xinqiao, Z. (2010) Spatial and temporal extinction dynamics in a freshwater cetacean. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2010.0584
  • Hart, T., Mann, R., Pettorelli, N., Coulson, T. & Trathan, P. N. (2010) Behavioural switching in a central place forager: patterns of diving behaviour in the Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus). Marine Biology. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-010-1428-2
  • Raihani, N. & Hart, T. (2010) Free-riders promote free-riding in a real-world setting. Oikos. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18279.x
  • Hart, T., Coulson, T. & Trathan, P. N. (2010) Time series analysis of archival tagging data: new approaches to larger data sets. Animal Behaviour. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.12.033
  • Turvey, S. T., Barrett, L. A., Lei, Z., Xinqiao, Z., Xianyan, W., Yadong, H., Yujiang, H., Kaiya, Z.,  Hart, T. & Ding, W. (2010) Forgetting the Yangtze freshwater megafauna: shifting baselines in Yangtze fishing communities, and local memory of extinct species. Conservation Biology DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01395.x
  • Hart, T., Fitzcharles, E., Trathan, P. N., Coulson, T and Rogers, A. D. (2009) Testing and improving the accuracy of discriminant function tests: a comparison between morphometric and molecular sexing in macaroni penguins.  Waterbirds 32: 437-443
  • Ahmed, S., Hart. T., Dawson, D. A., Horsburgh, G., Trathan, P. N. & Rogers, A. D. (2009) Isolation and characterization of macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) microsatellite loci and their utility in other penguin species (Spheniscidae, AVES). Molecular Ecology Resources 9: 1530-1535
  • Vargas, F. H., Barlow, S., Hart, T., Jimenez-Uzcátegui, G., Chavez, J., Naranjo, S. & Macdonald, D. W. (2008) Effects of climate variation on the abundance and distribution of flamingos in the Galápagos Islands. Journal of Zoology 276: 252-265
  • McCleery, R. H., Watt, T. A. & Hart, T. (2007) Introduction to Statistics for Biology. Taylor & Frances/CRC.
  • Rogers, A. D., Baco, A., Griffiths, H. J., Hart. T & Hall-Spencer JM (2007) Corals on seamounts. In: Pitcher A, Morato, T., Hart, P. J. B., Clark, M. R., Haggan, N & Santos, R. S. (Eds.) Seamounts: Ecology, Fisheries and Conservation. Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Series, Blackwell Scientific. Pp 141-169.
  • Mundy, N. I., Badcock, N. S., Hart, T., Scribner, K., Janssen K. & Nadeau, N. J. (2004) Conserved genetic basis of a quantitative plumage trait involved in mate choice. Science 303:1870-1873.


  • Gemma Clucas (Southampton)
  • Hila Levy
  • Caitlin Black