Andy Gardner
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publications
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Papers

Alpedrinha J, West SA & Gardner A (in press) Haplodiploidy and the evolution of eusociality: worker reproduction. American Naturalist. PDF

Biernaskie JM, Gardner A & West SA (in press) Multi-coloured greenbeards, bacteriocin diversity, and the rock-paper-scissors game. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. PDF

Gardner A (in press) Ultimate explanations concern the adaptive rationale for organism design. Biology & Philosophy. PDF 

Rodrigues AMM & Gardner A (in press) Evolution of helping and harming in heterogeneous groups. Evolution. PDF

Wyatt GAK, West SA & Gardner A (in press) Can natural selection favour altruism between species? Journal of Evolutionary Biology. PDF

Gardner A (2013) Darwinism, not mutationism, explains the design of organisms. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 111, 97-98. PDF

Gardner A & Conlon JP (2013) Cosmological natural selection and the purpose of the universe. Complexity 18, 48-56. PDF

Gardner A & Ross L (2013) Haplodiploidy, sex-ratio adjustment and eusociality. American Naturalist 181, E60-E67. PDF

Rodrigues AMM & Gardner A (2013) Evolution of helping and harming in viscous populations when group size varies. American Naturalist 181, 609-622. PDF 

West SA & Gardner A (2013) Adaptation and inclusive fitness. Current Biology 23, R557-R584. PDF

Gardner A (2012) Evolution of maternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25, 1479-1486. PDF journal cover

Gardner A, Alpedrinha J & West SA (2012) Haplodiploidy and the evolution of eusociality: split sex ratios. American Naturalist 179, 240-256. PDF

Pizzari T & Gardner A (2012) The sociobiology of sex: inclusive fitness consequences of inter-sexual interactions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B -- Biological Sciences 367. 2314-2323. PDF

Rodrigues AMM & Gardner A (2012) Evolution of helping and harming in heterogeneous populations. Evolution 66, 2065-2079. PDF

Scott-Philips T, Blythe R, Gardner A & West SA (2012) How do communication systems emerge? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 279, 1943-1949. PDF

Úbeda F & Gardner A (2012) A model for genomic imprinting in the social brain: elders. Evolution 66, 1567-1581. PDF

West SA, Winzer K, Gardner A & Diggle SP (2012) Quorum sensing and the confusion about diffusion. Trends in Microbiology 20, 586-594. PDF

Yeh AY-C & Gardner A (2012) A general ploidy model for the evolution of helping in viscous populations. Journal of Theoretical Biology 304, 297-303. PDF

Abbot P, Abe J, Alcock J, Alizon S, Alpedrinha JAC, Andersson M, Andre J-B, van Baalen M, Balloux F, Balshine S, Barton N, Beukeboom LW, Biernaskie JM, Bilde T, Borgia G, Breed M, Brown S, Bshary R, Buckling A, Burley NT, Burton-Chellew MN, Cant MA, Chapuisat M, Charnov EL, Clutton-Brock T, Cockburn A, Cole BJ, Colegrave N, Cosmides L, Couzin ID, Coyne JA, Creel S, Crespi B, Curry RL, Dall SRX, Day T, Dickinson JL, Dugatkin LA, El Mouden C, Emlen ST, Evans J, Ferriere R, Field J, Foitzik S, Foster K, Foster WA, Fox C, Gadau J, Gandon S, Gardner A, Gardner MG, Getty T, Goodisman MAD, Grafen A, Grosberg R, Grozinger CM, Gouyon PH, Gwynne D,  Harvey PH, Hatchwell BJ, Heinze J, Helantera H, Helms KR, Hill K, Jiricny N, Johnstone RA, Kacelnik A, Kiers ET, Kokko H, Komdeur J, Korb J, Kronauer D, Kümmerli R, Lehmann L, Linksvayer TA, Lion S, Lyon B, Marshall JAR, McElreath R, Michalakis Y, Michod RE, Mock D, Monnin T, Montgomerie R, Moore AJ, Mueller UG, Noë R, Okasha S, Pamilo P, Parker GA, Pedersen JS, Pen I, Pfennig D, Queller DC, Rankin DJ, Reece SE, Reeve HK, Reuter M, Roberts G, Robson SKA, Roze D, Rousset F, Rueppell O, Sachs JL, Santorelli L, Schmid-Hempel P, Schwarz MP, Scott-Phillips T, Shellmann-Sherman J, Sherman PW, Shuker DM, Smith J, Spagna JC, Strassmann B, Suarez AV, Sundström L, Taborsky M, Taylor P, Thompson G, Tooby J, Tsutsui ND, Tsuji K, Turillazzi S, Úbeda F, Vargo EL, Voelkl B, Wenseleers T, West SA, West-Eberhard MJ, Westneat DF, Wiernasz DC, Wild G, Wrangham R, Young AJ, Zeh DW, Zeh JA & Zink A (2011) Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality. Nature 471, E1-E4. PDF media

Biernaskie JM, West SA & Gardner A (2011) Are greenbeards intragenomic outlaws? Evolution 65, 2729-2742. PDF

Gardner A (2011) Kin selection under blending inheritance. Journal of Theoretical Biology 284, 125-129. PDF [talk]

Gardner A (2011) Tortured genius. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26, 109-110. PDF

Gardner A & Ross L (2011) The evolution of hermaphroditism by an infectious male-derived cell lineage: an inclusive-fitness analysis. American Naturalist 178, 191-201. PDF media 

Gardner A & Smiseth PT (2011) Evolution of parental care driven by mutual reinforcement of parental food provisioning and sibling competition. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 278, 196-203. PDF media

Gardner A & Welch JJ (2011) A formal theory of the selfish gene. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24, 1801-1813. PDF

Gardner A, West SA & Wild G (2011) The genetical theory of kin selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24, 1020-1043. PDF media

Inglis RF, Roberts PG, Gardner A & Buckling A (2011) Spite and the scale of competition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. American Naturalist 178,276-285. PDF

Ramiro RS, Alpedrinha J, Carter L, Gardner A & Reece SE (2011) Sex and death: the effects of innate immune factors on the sexual reproduction of malaria parasites. PLoS Pathogens 7: e1001309. PDF media

Reece SE, Pollitt LC, Colegrave N & Gardner A (2011) The meaning of death: evolution and ecology of apoptosis in protozoan parasites. PLoS Pathogens 7, e1002320. PDF

Úbeda F & Gardner A (2011) A model for genomic imprinting in the social brain: adults. Evolution 65, 462-475. PDF

West SA, El Mouden C & Gardner A (2011) 16 common misconceptions about the evolution of cooperation in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior 32, 231-262. PDF media

Brockhurst MA, Habets MGJL, Libberton B, Buckling A & Gardner A (2010) Ecological drivers of the evolution of public-goods cooperation in bacteria. Ecology 91, 334-340. PDF

El Mouden C, West SA & Gardner A (2010) The enforcement of cooperation by policing. Evolution 64, 2139-2152. PDF

Gardner A (2010) Sex-biased dispersal of adults mediates the evolution of altruism among juveniles. Journal of Theoretical Biology 262, 339-345. PDF

Gardner A (2010) Life without purpose. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25, 134-135. PDF media

Gardner A & West SA (2010) Greenbeards. Evolution 64, 25-38. PDF

Kümmerli R, van den Berg P, Griffin AS, West SA & Gardner A (2010) Repression of competition favours cooperation: experimental evidence from bacteria. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23, 699-706. PDF

MacLean RC, Perron GG & Gardner A (2010) Diminishing returns from beneficial mutations and pervasive epistasis shape the fitness landscape for Rifampicin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genetics 186, 1345-1354. PDF

Úbeda F & Gardner A (2010) A model for genomic imprinting in the social brain: juveniles. Evolution 64, 2587-2600. PDF media

West SA & Gardner A (2010) Altruism, spite and greenbeards. Science 327, 1341-1344. PDF media  

Wild G, Gardner A & West SA (2010) Multilevel and kin selection in a connected world -- reply. Nature 463, E9-E10. PDF

Collins S & Gardner A (2009) Integrating physiological, ecological and evolutionary change: a Price equation approach. Ecology Letters 12, 744-757. PDF

Gardner A (2009) Adaptation as organism design. Biology Letters 5, 861-864. PDF

Gardner A, Arce A & Alpedrinha J (2009) Budding dispersal and the sex ratio. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22, 1036-1045. PDF

Gardner A & Grafen A (2009) Capturing the superorganism: a formal theory of group adaptation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22, 659-671. PDF journal cover media

Inglis RF, Gardner A, Cornelis P & Buckling A (2009) Spite and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106, 5703-5707. PDF

Kümmerli R, Gardner A, West SA & Griffin AS (2009) Limited dispersal, budding dispersal and cooperation: an experimental study. Evolution 63, 939-949. PDF

Ross-Gillespie A, Gardner A, Buckling A, West SA & Griffin AS (2009) Density dependence and cooperation: theory and a test with bacteria. Evolution 63, 2315-2325. PDF

Wild G, Gardner A & West SA (2009) Adaptation and the evolution of parasite virulence in a connected world. Nature 459, 983-986. PDF comment reply media

Belshaw R, Gardner A, Rambaut A & Pybus OG (2008) Pacing a small cage: mutation and RNA viruses. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23, 188-193. PDF

Brockhurst MA, Buckling A, Racey D & Gardner A (2008) Resource supply and the evolution of public-goods cooperation in bacteria. BMC Biology 6, 20. PDF minireview media

El Mouden C & Gardner A (2008) Nice natives and mean migrants: the evolution of dispersal-dependent social behaviour in viscous populations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21, 1480-1491. PDF

Gardner A (2008) The Price equation. Current Biology 18, R198-R202. PDF 

Gardner A & Kümmerli R (2008) Social evolution: this microbe will self destruct. Current Biology 18, R1021-R1023. PDF

Reece SE, Drew DR & Gardner A (2008) Sex ratio adjustment and kin discrimination in malaria parasites. Nature 453, 609-614. PDF dispatch news & views media

West SA, Griffin AS & Gardner A (2008) Social semantics: how useful has group selection been? Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21, 374-385. PDF media

Brockhurst MA, Buckling A & Gardner A (2007) Cooperation peaks at intermediate disturbance. Current Biology 17, 761-765. 
PDF dispatch media

Buckling A, Harrison F, Vos M, Brockhurst MA, Gardner A, West SA & Griffin AS (2007) Siderophore-mediated cooperation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 62, 135-141. PDF

Diggle SP, Gardner A, West SA & Griffin AS (2007) Evolutionary theory of bacterial quorum sensing: when is a signal not a signal? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – Biological Sciences 362, 1241-1249. PDF media 

Gardner A, Hardy ICW, Taylor PD & West SA (2007) Spiteful soldiers and sex ratio conflict in polyembryonic parasitoid wasps. American Naturalist 169, 519-533. PDF media

Gardner A & West SA (2007) Social evolution: the decline and fall of genetic kin recognition. Current Biology 17, R810-R812. PDF media

Gardner A, West SA & Barton NH (2007) The relation between multilocus population genetics and social evolution theory. American Naturalist 169, 207-226.
PDF media

Gardner A, West SA & Griffin AS (2007) Is bacterial persistence a social trait? PLoS ONE 2, e752. PDF leave a comment media

Guinnee MA, Gardner A, Howard AE, West SA & Little TJ (2007) The causes and consequences of variation in offspring size: a case study using Daphnia. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20, 577-587. PDF

Ross-Gillespie A, Gardner A, West SA & Griffin AS (2007) Frequency dependence and cooperation: theory and a test with bacteria. American Naturalist 170, 331-342. PDF media

Taylor PD, Wild G & Gardner A (2007) Direct fitness versus inclusive fitness: how shall we model kin selection? Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20, 301-309. PDF

West SA, Diggle SP, Buckling A, Gardner A & Griffin AS (2007) The social lives of microbes. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 38, 53-77. PDF

West SA, Griffin AS & Gardner A (2007) Evolutionary explanations for cooperation. Current Biology 17, R661-R672. PDF media

West SA, Griffin AS & Gardner A (2007) Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20, 415-432. PDF comment reply media

Gardner A & Kalinka AT (2006) Recombination and the evolution of mutational robustness. Journal of Theoretical Biology 241, 707-715. PDF

Gardner A & West SA (2006) Spite. Current Biology 16, R662-R664. PDF

Gardner A & West SA (2006) Demography, altruism, and the benefits of budding. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19, 1707-1716. PDF 

Taylor PD, Day T, Nagy D, Wild G, André J-B & Gardner A (2006) The evolutionary consequences of plasticity in host-pathogen interactions. Theoretical Population Biology 69, 323-331. PDF

West SA, Gardner A & Griffin AS (2006) Altruism. Current Biology 16, R482-R483. PDF

West SA, Gardner A, Shuker DM, Reynolds T, Burton-Chellew M, Sykes EM, Guinnee MA & Griffin AS (2006) Cooperation and the scale of competition in humans. Current Biology 16, 1103-1106. PDF dispatch media

West SA, Griffin AS, Gardner A & Diggle SP (2006) Social evolution theory for microbes. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4, 597-607. PDF journal cover media

Gardner A, Allsop DJ, Charnov EL & West SA (2005) A dimensionless invariant for relative size at sex change: explanation and implications. American Naturalist 165, 551-566. PDF

Gardner A & West SA (2004) Cooperation and punishment, especially in humans. American Naturalist 164, 753-764. PDF

Gardner A & West SA (2004) Spite and the scale of competition. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17, 1195-1203. PDF media

Gardner A & West SA (2004) Spite among siblings. Science 305, 1413-1414. PDF

Gardner A, West SA & Buckling A (2004) Bacteriocins, spite and virulence. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271, 1529-1535. PDF media

Gardner A, Reece SE & West SA (2003) Even more extreme fertility insurance and the sex ratios of protozoan blood parasites. Journal of Theoretical Biology 223, 515-521. PDF

Gardner A & Zuidema W (2003) Is evolvability involved in the origin of modular variation? Evolution 57, 1448-1450. PDF

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Book Chapters

Gardner A (2013) Adaptation of individuals and groups. In: From groups to individuals. (F Bouchard & P Huneman, eds), MIT Press.

El Mouden C, Burton-Chellew M, Gardner A & West SA (2012) What do humans maximise? In: Evolution and rationality: decisions, cooperation and strategic behaviour. (S Okasha & K Binmore, eds). Cambridge University Press.

Wenseleers T, Gardner A & Foster KR (2010) Social evolution theory: a review of methods and approaches. In: Social behaviour: genes, ecology and evolution. (T Székely, J Komdeur & AJ Moore, eds). Cambridge University Press.

Gardner A, Griffin AS, West SA (2010) Altruism and cooperation. In: Evolutionary behavioral ecology. (DF Westneat & CW Fox, eds). Oxford University Press.

Diggle SP, West SA, Gardner A & Griffin AS (2008) Communication in bacteria. In: Communication among social organisms. (P D'Ettorre & D Hughes, eds). Oxford University Press.

Gardner A & Foster KR (2008) The evolution and ecology of cooperation – history and concepts. In: Ecology of social evolution. (J Korb & J Heinze, eds), pp 1-36. Springer. PDF

West SA, Gardner A & Griffin AS (2008) Kinship and social behaviour. In: Foundations of evolutionary psychology: ideas, issues and applications (C Crawford & D Krebs, eds).

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Encyclopaedia Articles

Gardner A (in press) Kin selection. International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition. Elsevier.

Gardner A (in press) Group selection. Encyclopedia of Genetics, 2nd Edition. Elsevier.

Gardner A, Griffin AS & West SA (2009) Theory of cooperation. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons. PDF 

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Miscellaneous

Gardner A (2011) Inclusive fitness. New Scientist 211 (2827), 30. PDF
 

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