Dr Nicole Milligan

Dr Nicole Milligan

Nicole Milligan


Name: Dr Nicole Milligan
Position: Postgraduate Research Assistant
Email: Nicole.milligan@zoo.ox.ac.uk


I graduated from the University of Toronto with a BSc in Zoology and Computer Science in 2004 and from the University of Oxford with an MSc in Biology in 2006. For my theses, I studied (i) learning and leadership in sticklebacks and (ii) the prevalence and diversity of avian malaria in magpies. Since then I have worked on various projects in the Department of Zoology and recently completed a DPhil at the EGI on avian foraging behaviour.


I currently work on a project examining the causes and consequences of sociality in birds. My DPhil explores daily foraging routines and how individual variation in these is related to competition and social associations. This involves monitoring individually PIT-tagged tits as they visit automated data loggers at feeding stations across Wytham Wood. In order to investigate fine temporal scale patterns in foraging behaviour, I use a PCA approach to quantify the daily clustering of individuals’ feeder visits into foraging bouts.


Crates, R. A., J. A. Firth, D. R. Farine, C. J. Garroway, L. R. Kidd, L. M. Aplin, R. Radersma, N. D. Milligan, B. Voelkl, A. Culina, B. L. Verhelst, C. A. Hinde and B. C. Sheldon (2016). Individual variation in winter supplementary food consumption and its consequences for survival and reproduction in wild birds. Journal of Avian Biology: In press.

Aplin, L. M., J. A. Firth, D. R. Farine, B. Voelkl, R. A. Crates, A. Culina, C. J. Garroway, C. A. Hinde, L. R. Kidd, I. Psorakis, N. D. Milligan, R. Radersma, B. L. Verhelst and B. C. Sheldon (2015). Consistent individual differences in the social phenotypes of wild great tits, Parus major. Animal Behaviour 108: 117-127.

Farine, D. R., J. A. Firth, L. M. Aplin, R. A. Crates, A. Culina, C. J. Garroway, C. A. Hinde, L. R. Kidd, N. D. Milligan, I. Psorakis, R. Radersma, B. L. Verhelst, B. Voelkl and B. C. Sheldon (2015). The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds. Royal Society Open Science 2: 150057.

Psorakis, I., B. Voelkl, C. J. Garroway, R. Radersma, L. M. Aplin, R. A. Crates, A. Culina, D. R. Farine, J. A. Firth, C. A. Hinde, L. R. Kidd, N. D. Milligan, S. J. Roberts, B. Verhelst and B. C. Sheldon (2015). Inferring social structure from temporal data. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 69: 857-866.